South African cycads face extinction crisis

28 October 2010

Encephalartos latifronsCycads are now the most threatened group of organisms. This was revealed in the latest global conservation assessment for cycads by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). (October 2010)

Cycads are the oldest living seed plants and have survived three mass extinction events in the earth's history but they are facing a growing threat of extinction. The global conservation assessment of 308 cycad species shows that their status has declined from 53% threatened in 2003 to 62% threatened in 2010.

South Africa is a global hotspot for threatened cycads

South Africa is one of the world centres of cycad diversity, with 39 species. It is also one of the global hotspots for threatened cycads: 68% of South Africa's cycads are threatened with extinction compared to the global average of 62%. 31% from South Africa are classified as Critically Endangered, compared to the global average of 17%. South Africa also has three of the four species classified as Extinct in the Wild, two of which have become Extinct in the wild in the period between 2003 and 2010.

Removal for private collections is the main threat

The main threat in South Africa is removal from the wild for private collections and this is certainly the pressure that resulted in two species becoming Extinct in the Wild. Habitat loss, which is the main cause of decline in other parts of the world, is a lesser problem for South African cycads. More recently, bark harvesting for the medicinal trade has increased in South Africa and has also resulted in declines in cycad populations. It has even resulted in the complete loss of populations in KwaZulu Natal and Eastern Cape.

South Africa currently has seven cycad species that have fewer than 100 individuals left in the wild. Professor John Donaldson of SANBI warns that South Africa risks losing these cycad species within the next 10 years unless effective measures are put in place to stop the flow of cycads from wild populations to private gardens. "We have seen dramatic declines in some species over ten years, one of them from ca. 700 plants to fewer than 100, and this is going to result in extinctions," he said.

NEMBA Act makes provision for species management plans

The National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA), which came into force in 2004, makes provision for species management plans as one tool to manage species like cycads. SANBI has worked together with the Department of Environmental Affairs and stakeholders in the Eastern Cape to develop a management plan for the Albany cycad, one of the species with fewer than 100 individuals left in the wild. This is the first species management plan developed so far and provides incentives to landowners if they manage their cycads effectively.

Scientific Authority advises government on the sustainable use of cycads

The Scientific Authority established by the Minister of Environmental Affairs in 2008 to advise government on the sustainable use of wildlife in trade, has submitted a crisis management plan for cycads to the Dept. The proposals in this plan are currently being evaluated. South Africa's legislation allows the Scientific Authority to withhold authorisation for trade if there is evidence that trade has a detrimental impact on wild populations of threatened species. The Scientific Authority is planning a workshop for January or February 2011 to assess whether the current trade in cycads is detrimental to the survival of wild cycad populations.

Encephalartos friderici-guilielmi


Encephalartos brevifoliolatus: This cycad was only discovered in 1996 when a small population was found in a remote mountainous area in Limpopo Province. The only known population comprised 5-7 plants. Several of these plants were removed by poachers and conservation officials then removed the last stems to a safe location in 2004.

Encephalartos inopinus: This is an unusual species with very distinctive leaves that resemble cycads from Mexico. Conservation authorities in Limpopo have been monitoring this species since 1992 and the population declined from 677 in 1992 to only 81 in 2004. There are unconfirmed reports that the species has declined even further since 2004 and may even be extinct in the wild.

Encephalartos latifrons: This cycad, commonly known as the Albany cycad has declined to the point where fewer than 60 plants exist in the wild. Some farmers have been protecting this plant on their own land and it is due to their efforts that the cycad still occurs on private land. A species management plan developed for the Albany cycad recognises this positive role and supports use of seeds derived from these well managed populations to propagate seedlings. One of the most important aspects of the management plan is that it includes all the main stakeholders involved with the wild populations.

More about IUCN threat categories

IUCN Threat status: the IUCN threat status is based on a rigorous assessment of different criteria (e.g. population decline, area of distribution, population size) to determine the likelihood that a species will become extinct. The IUCN threatened categories comprise Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable. The IUCN system also identifies species that are Extinct (no individuals exist anymore) or Extinct in the Wild (no specimens occur in the wild), but these are not included in the number of threatened species. It further classifies species that are Near Threatened, or Least Concern, or have insufficient data to complete a threat assessment (DD).

For more information, please contact:

Ms Michele Pfab (Tel: 012 843-5025)

Professor John Donaldson (Tel: 021 799-8771/ 083-290-1170). .

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Submitted by Briers at 15/12/2015 - 18:40
In answer to Mrs. Bullock's question. All cycads/Broodbome/cycas are cycads. They are all of the same class. Cycadales The same Order: Cycadopsida All African cycads (with the exception of 2) are the same Family. (Zamia) One stangeria & 1 Cycas. All African cycads as above are from the Genus Enchepalartos, with about 65 different Species.
Submitted by Briers at 15/12/2015 - 18:33
I now hear that Inopinus is finally also extinct. The Central branch of the society went out on a visit to Steelpoort to the last 60 plants and found the place stripped. Why did the authorities not secure the place. Better still, place it in the care of a private institute and let them make money out of it. You will see how fast it get's fenced. i.e., Dyerianus. You can't get near them as a casual member of the public.
Submitted by William Sepheka at 07/05/2015 - 8:51
Cycas species can be readily distinguished from Cycads by the loosely aggregated sporophylls (cone scales) of the female cone, the prominent midrib (mid vein) in each leaflet and the lower leaflets often reduced to paired, spine like-processes. No permit required for Cycas species, however, for Cycads species, one has to have a permit.
Submitted by Mrs Wray Bullock at 27/04/2015 - 13:21
Please can you let me know if Broodboom is a Cycad or a Cycas, or are Cycas the same as Cycad and do they have to be registered.
Submitted by Briers at 19/12/2014 - 22:23
The proposal by many that a 'safe' place be created, where these plants can be protected, is noble but hopelessly flawed. The one and only Latifrons that was in the Pretoria Botanical Gardens has been stolen. Kirstenbosch was hit during this year. Durban Botanical gardens were raided a few years ago, so to Nelspruit. The safest place is in private hands, just like Sanparks is now doing with the Rhinos. Give them an economic value, and people will protect them.
Submitted by Briers at 19/12/2014 - 22:15
I was in Kirstenbosch the other day, and 6 plants had female cones. The Latifrons in the gardens have been around for 50+ years. Make the maths. Assume only 6 cones per year. (They have 50+ adult plants) 300 seeds per cone. = 1800 seeds. * 50 years = 90 000. Just from Kirstenbosch. Many other growers also have seed. If you add the other growers around Pretoria, Nelspruit, Brits and the Albany land owners, then who is kidding who. Somebody please tell me what happened to all the pants?
Submitted by Michele Pfab (Scientific Co-ordinator of the Scientific Authority, SANBI) at 27/06/2014 - 15:08
SANBI is currently running a Biodiversity Management Planning process for South Africa's Critically Endangered and Endangered cycads. The Biodiversity Management Plan (BMP) will be published by the Minister of Water and Environmental Affairs for implementation. The primary aim of the BMP is to secure and recover wild cycad populations. Members of the public are welcome to participate in this project and may attend scheduled stakeholder workshops (contact Jessica de Beer (
Submitted by Wynand van Eeden at 05/06/2014 - 10:32
This is a very one-sided and inaccurate report. Collectors contribute to the problems we have, I don't dispute that but so does SANBI. With all the parental stock in botanic gardens, managed by SANBI, it is a disgrace that more is not done to make seedlings available to the public. There is no ONE guilty party here, we all contribute and putting the blame on a single party serves only to hide your own contribution. Even if you do nothing but are in a position to help, do you contribute through!
Submitted by nico booysen at 25/03/2014 - 23:24
why doesnt kirstenbosch keep our rare seeds and cycads in South Africa, they rather export it to enrich themselfs.
Submitted by Dr Gaetan Georges Delhove at 22/11/2013 - 10:37
Producing seeds and seedlings from reputable sources is one thing, along with the wealth of the buyers, yet, having the necessary skills and resources to raise, bring up and safely and optimally lead these new-born specimen to the stage of reproduction is another thing, which entails long years of dedication, fostering, surveillance, protection and updated horticultural know-how. The illusive statistics on that topic would show how dismal the hypothetic success rate would be.

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